Internet of things (IoT)

How to implement IOT in businesses?. The Complete Internet of things (IoT) Developer Course 2023 [Videos].

FEATURE Ultimate IoT implementation guide for businesses IoT can offer many benefits to the enterprise, but it can be a challenge to implement. Learn the requirements and use best practices for a successful deployment.

What is IoT?

The internet of things is a network of dedicated devices -- called things -- deployed and used to gather and exchange real-world data across the internet or other networks. Examples of this technology in operation include the following:

Cardiac patients have a heart sensor installed after surgery, reporting diagnostic information about each patients heart to a monitoring physician.

  • Homes use sensors for tasks including security and home management -- such as lights and appliance control -- with status reporting and control performed through smartphone apps.
  • Farmers use moisture sensors throughout the fields to direct irrigation where crops need it most.
  • Ranchers use location sensors placed on each head of cattle to both identify and locate cattle across the ranch.
  • Industrial plants use sensors to monitor the presence of dangerous materials or workplace conditions and manage employee movement throughout the facility.
  • Cities deploy a fleet of sensors to monitor road and traffic conditions, adjusting a traffic control apparatus dynamically to route and optimize traffic based on prevailing situations.

Key concepts if IOT are as follows:

A focus on real-world data. Where an enterprise routinely deals with documents, PowerPoints, images, videos, spreadsheets and many other forms of static digital information, IOT Devices produce data that typically reflects one or more physical conditions in the real world. IoT devices can not only help a business to learn whats happening, but also exercise control over whats happening.

The vital importance of immediacy in real-time operation. Where routine data -- such as a memo document -- can exist for days or months without ever being used, IoT devices must deliver data for collection and processing without delay. This makes related factors, such as network bandwidth and connectivity, particularly important for IoT environments.

The resulting data itself. IoT projects are often defined by the larger project or business purpose driving IoT deployment. In many cases, IoT data is part of a control loop, with a straightforward cause-and-effect objective. For example, a sensor tells a homeowner that their front door is unlocked, and the homeowner can use an actuator -- an IoT device designed to translate control signals received from the network into real-world actions -- in the door to lock it remotely.

But IoT can support much larger and more far-reaching business goals. Millions of IoT sensors can produce unimaginably vast quantities of raw data -- far too much for humans to review and act upon. Increasingly, large IoT projects are the core of big data initiatives, such as machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) projects. The data collected from vast IoT device deployments can be processed and analyzed to make vital business projections or train AI systems based on the real-world data collected from vast sensor arrays. That back-end analyses can demand substantial storage and computing power. Computing can be handled in centralized data centers, in public clouds or distributed across several edge computing locations close to where data is collected.

How does IoT work?

IoT isnt a single device, software or technology. IoT is an amlgam of devices, networks, computing resources and software tools and stacks. Understanding IOT terminology. usually starts with the IoT devices themselves.

Examples of consumer, enterprise and industrial IoT devices include smart TVs and smart sensors outfitted to conference rooms and assembly line machines.

Things. Every IoT device -- a thing or smart sensor -- is a small dedicated computer possessing an embedded processor, firmware and limited memory and network connectivity. The device collects specific physical data and sends that data out onto an IP network, such as the internet. Depending on the sensors work, it might also include amplifiers, filters and converters. IoT devices are battery powered and rely on wireless network connectivity through individual IP addresses. IoT devices can be configured individually or in groups.

Connections. The data collected by IoT devices must be transmitted and collected. This second layer of IoT involves the broad network, along with an interface between the network and back-end processing. The network is typically a conventional IP-based network, such as an Ethernet LAN and the public internet. Every IoT device receives a unique IP address and unique identifier. The thing passes its data to the network using a wireless network interface, such as Wi-Fi, or a cellular network, such as 4G or 5G. As with any network device, data packets are marked with a destination IP address where the data is to be routed and delivered. Such network data exchange is identical to the everyday exchange of network data between ordinary computers. The destination for this raw sensor data is typically an intermediary interface such as an IoT hub or IOT gateway. The IoT gateway usually serves to collect and collate the raw sensor data, often applying early preprocessing tasks, such as normalization and filtering, to IoT data.

Back-end. The enormous volume of real-time data produced by an IoT sensor fleet and collated at the IoT gateway must be analyzed to yield deeper insights, such as exposing business opportunities or driving machine learning. The IoT gateway sends its cleaned and secured sensor data across the internet to a back end for processing and analysis. Analyses are performed using extensive computing clusters, such as Hadoop clusters. This back end might be located at a corporate data center, a colocation facility, or a computing infrastructure architected in the public cloud. There, the data is stored, processed, modeled and analyzed.

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